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Protecting the Marine Environment of Non-Polar Ice-Covered Seas

Kirchner, Stefan

Artikkelit , Asiantuntija-artikkeli


The warming and reduction of sea ice cover in Arctic and Subarctic waters not only posed a direct threat to Arctic wildlife but also allows for more human activities which in turn lead to more threats to flora and fauna in the North. The increasing number of infrastructure projects in Northern Finland, Norway and Sweden and their impact on local reindeer populations is a case in point. In this text it will be shown how coastal states can utilize international law in order to protect the marine environment in such situations. Particular attention will be given to waters which are often covered by ice but are not located in polar regions, such as the Baltic Sea, which is home to several endangered seal populations and to the question of the geographical scope of the only norm in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which explicitly refers to ice-covered areas, Article 234 UNCLOS. (Edilex-toimitus)

  • Edilex-sarja 2020/5

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